When purchasing residential real property, purchasers and sellers should consider warranties that the seller will provide to the purchaser. Typically, warranties are expressly stated in the contract the purchaser and seller negotiate. However, new home builders who sell residential real property provide certain minimum warranties to the purchaser, regardless of whether or not those warranties are included in the contract. It is important to recognize these warranties exist and that new home builders may disclaim certain aspects of the warranties using the correct contract language.
Warranties that are included in the sale of property or goods that are not included in the contract are known as implied warranties. There are several implied warranties that Florida courts applied to the sale of residential real property. These include: (1) the implied warranty to construct according to plans; (2) the implied warranty to construct in a workmanlike manner; and (3) the implied warranty of habitability.
The implied warranty to construct according to plans concerns a warranty from the builder of a new home to the purchaser that the purchaser’s new home has been built according to the specifications outlined in the building plans. This is breached when the builder failed to construct the building according to those construction plans and the purchaser suffered damages as a result of that failure.
The implied warranty construct in a workmanlike manner means that the home is constructed in a manner that is in accordance with the accepted norm of the industry. This warranty may be breached when the builder sold construction materials and workmanship, had a reason to know the particular purpose for the construction, the purchaser then relied upon the builder’s skill or judgment for the construction, and then the final product was defective and the purchaser suffered damages as a result.
Finally, the implied warranty of habitability warrants that the newly constructed residence does not contain any latent defects that would make the residence unfit for living within. A breach of this warranty may occur when a purchaser takes possession of a new residence and a latent defect in the residence makes the premises uninhabitable.
So, what if the seller of a home wants to preclude certain aspects of an implied warranty? Under Florida law, the seller and purchaser may exclude certain and specific items from an implied warranty through a disclaimer with clear and unambiguous language that clearly reflects both parties’ expectations as to what items are not warranted. This means that general or broad disclaimers of implied warranties are not effective to disclaim specific items covered in an implied warranty.
Most of the law regarding implied warranties is not contained in the Florida Statutes, but rather is case law created by judges in different judicial circuits throughout the state of Florida, making the rulings on implied warranties inconsistent throughout the state. As always, when preparing contracts involving real property, it is important to consult with an attorney about important issues such as implied warranties.